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Revised Edition



Cavalcanti Cunha, Maria Jandyra and Jo-Anne S. Ferreira. “Desenvolvimento do Português como Língua de Herança em Trinidad e Tobago: Aquisição e Aprendizagem / The Development of Portuguese as Heritage Language in Trinidad and Tobago: Acquisition and Learning”. Revista FSA (Faculdade Santo Agostinho), Teresina, v. 18, n. 04, April 2021, pp. 159–171.  


Ferreira, Ferdie. Political Encounters, 1946-2016. Port-of-Spain, 2017.


Ferreira, Jo-Anne S. The Portuguese of Trinidad and Tobago: Portrait of an Ethnic Minority. St. Augustine: Institute of Social and Economic Research, The University of the West Indies, 1994. Revised edition. Kingston: UWI Press, 2018.

Ferreira, Jo-Anne S. 8. “Arrival of the Portuguese”. Foundation Readings on the History of Trinidad and Tobago, edited by Theodore Lewis. Port-of-Spain: Ministry of Education. 2017. pp. 129–135.

Ferreira, Jo-Anne S. “Ode to Carne Vinha d'Alhos (Calvinadage/Garlic Pork) in Trinidad.” The Portuguese of Trinidad & Tobago Facebook Page Note, December 2017.

Ferreira, Jo-Anne S. “5. Behind the Scenes: The Cultural Impact of the Portuguese on Trinidad & Tobago.” Intersecting Diaspora Boundaries: Portuguese Contexts, edited by Dulce Maria Scott and Irene Maria F. Blayer. New York: Peter Lang International Academic Publishers, 2016. pp. 83-100.

Ferreira, Jo-Anne S. “Portuguese in Trinidad & Tobago." UWI St Augustine News (STAN) May-June 2016, pp. 60-67. See our blog here.

Ferreira, Jo-Anne S. “167th Portuguese Anniversary - Stories of the Portuguese of Trinidad & Tobago.” Trinidad & Tobago Guardian 10 June 2013. p. 44A 

Ferreira, Jo-Anne S. “The Portuguese of Trinidad and Tobago: Locating an Important Minority.” Trinidad and Tobago: 50 Years of Independence (Official 50th Anniversary of Independence Magazine) August 2012: pp. 18-20.

Ferreira, Jo-Anne S. “Madeiran Portuguese Culinary Heritage in Trinidad & Tobago.” N.p., 2012.

Ferreira, Jo-Anne S. "Pioneers and Proprietors: The Portuguese of T&T (165 Years of the Madeiran Presence here).” The Westerly No 52. 2011. p. 26

Ferreira, Jo-Anne S., ed. “165th Anniversary of the Madeiran Portuguese in Trinidad & Tobago” (Sunday Guardian Supplement), 10 June 2011.

Ferreira, Jo-Anne S. OP75 - Portuguese Heritage in Trinidad and Tobago. West Indiana Division, Alma Jordan Library, UWI, St Augustine, 2010.

Ferreira, Jo-Anne S.  “Madeiran Portuguese Migration to Guyana, St. Vincent, Antigua and Trinidad: A Comparative Overview.” Portuguese Studies Review 14.2 (2006/7): pp. 63-85.

Ferreira, Jo-Anne S. “Aspects of the Attrition of an Immigrant Language: Lexical Loss among Portuguese Trinidadians.” Paper presented at the Society for Caribbean Linguistics 14th Biennial Conference, St Augustine, 15-17 August 2002.

Ferreira, Jo-Anne S. “Madeiran immigration to Trinidad & Tobago during the 20th century.” Imigração e Emigração nas Ilhas. Funchal: Centro de Estudos da História do Atlântico (CEHA), 2001. pp. 28-39.

Ferreira, Jo-Anne S. “A Trinidadiana in Portugal.” Newsday, and also Sunday Guardian (25th Anniversary European Union supplement, and CEHA Newsletter 12, December 2011), 21 June 2001.

Ferreira, Jo-Anne S. “The Portuguese Language in Trinidad and Tobago: A Study of Language Shift and Language Death." PhD diss., University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, 1999.

Ferreira, Jo-Anne S. “Do Atlântico às Antilhas: O Caso da Trinidad.” Islenha 19 (June to December 1996): 95-107.

Ferreira, Jo-Anne S.  “8. The Madeiran Portuguese of Trinidad & Tobago.” Entrepreneurship in the Caribbean: Culture, Structure and Conjuncture, edited by Selwyn Ryan and Taimoon Stewart. St Augustine: ISER (now SALISES), 1994. pp. 208-225.

Ferreira, Jo-Anne S. “The Portuguese of Trinidad,” in The Book of Trinidad, edited by Gérard Besson and Bridget Brereton. Port-of-Spain: Paria Publishing Co. Ltd., 1991. pp. 263-269.

Ferreira, Jo-Anne S. “Some Aspects of Portuguese Immigration into Trinidad and Tobago: An Investigation Based on Oral History,” in Oral and Pictorial Records Programme (OPReP) Newsletter 8 (December 1989): 3-5.

Ferreira, Jo-Anne S. Portuguese of the West Indies Website, with Dean de Freitas (co-ordinator of TriniGenWeb and Dean’s Family History)

Ferreira, Jo-Anne S. and Naidea Nunes Nunes. “Old Love Songs: Antigas Canções de Namorados (1921–1992), de Mónica Reis Pestana (1902–1996).” Islenha 60 (July 2017): 97-124.

Ferreira, Jo-Anne S. and Eliete Sampaio Farneda. “2. Português Língua de Herança: Um estudo da tentativa da manutenção de uma língua praticamente extinta, em Trinidad e Tobago.” O Mundo do Português e o Português no Mundo afora: Especificidades, Implicações e Açõesedited Maria Luisa Ortiz Alvarez and Luís Gonçalves. São Paulo Pontes Editores, 2016. pp. 137–156.

Ferreira, Jo-Anne S. and Vítor Paulo Teixeira. Aprender Madeira - Trinidad & TobagoDicionário Enciclopédico da Madeira (Projeto Aprender Madeira), edited by José Eduardo Franco. Lisbon: Clepul, 2015.

Gomes, Albert Maria. “I am an Immigrant.” Caribbean Essays: An Anthology, edited by Andrew Salkey, 53-59. London: Evans Brothers Ltd., 1973.

Gomes, Albert Maria. Through a Maze of Colour. Port-of-Spain: Key Caribbean Publications, 1974.

Gomes, Albert Maria. All Papas Children. Surrey: Cairi Publishing House, 1978.

Mendes, Alex. “On the Flyleaf of an Old Bible Much History Is Recorded.” Sunday Guardian Magazine, 11 August 1968.

Mendes, Alfred Hubert. Pitch Lake. London: Duckworth, 1934. Reprint. London: New Beacon Books Ltd., 1980.

Mendes, Alfred Hubert. Black Fauns. London: Duckworth, 1935.  Reprint. London: New Beacon Books Ltd., 1984.

Mendes, Alfred Hubert. Autobiography Of Alfred H. Mendes, 1897-1991, edited by Michele Levy. Kingston: UWI Press, 2002. 

Mendes, Alfred Hubert. “Tropic Town.” Alfred H. Mendes: Short Stories, Articles and Letters, edited by Michele Levy. Kingston: UWI Press, 2016. pp. 34-51.

Mendes, Alfred Hubert. “Jacob Ayoub.” Alfred H. Mendes: Short Stories, Articles and Letters, edited by Michele Levy. Kingston: UWI Press, 2016. pp. 52-55.

Mendes, Alfred Hubert. “Without Snow.” Alfred H. Mendes: Short Stories, Articles and Letters, edited by Michele Levy. Kingston: UWI Press, 2016. pp. 56-67.

Mendes, Alfred Hubert. “Young da Costa.” Alfred H. Mendes: Short Stories, Articles and Letters, edited by Michele Levy. Kingston: UWI Press, 2016. pp. 68-73.

Mendes, Alfred Hubert. “Ursula's Morals.” Alfred H. Mendes: Short Stories, Articles and Letters, edited by Michele Levy. Kingston: UWI Press, 2016. pp. , 74-80.

Mendes, Alfred Hubert. “Neighbours.” The Man Who Ran Away and other Stories of Trinidad in the 1920s and 1930s, edited by Michele Levy. Kingston: UWI Press, 2006. pp. 78-82.

Mendes, Alfred Hubert. “Laura's Return.” “The Man Who Ran Away and other Stories of Trinidad in the 1920s and 1930s, edited by Michele Levy. Kingston: UWI Press, 2006. pp. 83-89.

Mendes, Alfred Hubert. “One Day for John Small.” “The Man Who Ran Away and other Stories of Trinidad in the 1920s and 1930s, edited by Michele Levy. Kingston: UWI Press, 2006. pp. 119.

Mendes, Alfred Hubert. Selected Writings of Alfred H. Mendes, edited by Michele Levy. Kingston: UWI Press, 2013

Milne, Anthony. "De Bossière: The Lion in Winter,” Gowanus, Summer 1997.

Milne, Anthony. “My Kind of Christmas: Remembering Things Gone By.” Trinidad Express, 21 November 1989: 21.

Milne, Anthony. “The Third Eye: On Behalf of the Portuguese”, Trinidad Express, 23 November 1989: 24-25

Milne, Anthony. “Note for the Quincentenary: From Madeira to Trinidad - the Portuguese in the West Indies." Sunday Express, 24 May 1992: 4, 22.

Milne, Anthony. “White Like Me,” Gowanus, Spring 1998.

Milne, Anthony. “Winter Wonderland: Letter Home from JB de Callao,” Gowanus, Winter 2000.

Nunez, Elizabeth. Not for Everyday Use: A Memoir. New York: Akashic Books, 2014.

Quintal, J. Wayne. “A Preliminary Review of the Portuguese Presence in the San Fernando Area.” MS. San Fernando: n.p., 1993.

Reis, Charles. Brief History of the Associação Portuguesa Primeiro de Dezembro. Port-of-Spain: Franklin’s Electric Printery, 1926. Reprint. Port-of-Spain: Board of Management of the Associação Portuguesa Primeiro de Dezembro, 1992 (pp. 95-101 missing from reprint).

Reis, Charles. Associação Portugueza Primeiro de Dezembro. Port-of-Spain: Yuille’s Printery, 1945.

Ries (sic), Monica M[aria] P[estana]. Travelling Memories with Jokes and Tips from 1910-1984. Port-of-Spain: Monica M.P. Reis, 1988.

Ries (sic), Monica M[aria] P[estana]. “Antigas Canções de Namorados.” Mt. Lambert, Trinidad. N.p., 1992.


Jo-Anne Ferreira's Exile Bibliography 
Last Updated on July 1, 2007





Compiled by Jo-Anne S. Ferreira






The Port of Spain Gazette


The Trinidad Spectator


The Trinidad Sentinel


Other published works

Anon.  A Brief Statement of Facts Explanatory of the Present Position. Funchal, 1846.


Baillie, John.  Memoir of the Reverend W.H. Hewitson. 2d. ed. London, 1858.


Blackburn, Reverend William Maxwell.  The Exiles of Madeira. Philadelphia: Presbyterian Board of Publication, c.1860.


Dimitt, Della.  A Story of Madeira. Cincinnati, 1896.

An English Resident.  Narrative of Circumstances Connected with the Confinement of Dr. Robert Reid Kalley, now Prisoner in the Gaol in Madeira. Funchal, 1844. 


Fernandes da Gama/Dagama, João.  Perseguição dos Calvinistas da Madeira. São João do Rio Claro, Brazil, 1896. 


Kalley, Dr. Robert Reid.  Uma Exposição de Fatos. Funchal and Lisbon, 1843/1875.

———. “An account of the recent persecutions in Madeira. In a letter to a friend.” 2d. ed. 1845.

———. “An account of the recent persecutions in Madeira. In a letter to a friend.” London, 1844.

———. “Recent facts, showing how Popery treats the civil rights of Protestants, etc.” 1847.

———. “A short statement of Dr. Kalley’s case: his expulsion from Madeira by outrage, etc.” London, 1847.

———.  Aos madeirenses.

———.  Mais duas palavras sobre a revisão das Biblias.

Um madeirense/Madeira Resident.  Revista histórica do prosletismo anti-católico exercido na ilha da Madeira pelo Dr. Roberto Reid Kalley, médico escocês, desde 1838, até hoje. Funchal, 1845. (See Sant’Ana e Vasconcelos)

Norton, Reverend Norman.  Record of Facts Concerning the Persecutions at Madeira in 1843 and 1846: the Flight of a Thousand Converts to the West India Islands; and also, the Sufferings of Those who Arrived (Here) in the United States. Second Edition: with a supplement sketching the history to October 1849. N.Y.: The American and Foreign Christian Union, 1849. (Also 1st and 3rd editions.) Full book available at

Patterson, A. Drummond.  Chronicles of a Struggle. Edinburgh, 1894.

Pr(i?)estly, W.H. The History of the Presbyteryians of Springfield. Synod of Illinois, 1870–1888, Decatur 1888.

Sant’Ana e Vasconcelos, Manuel de.  Revista histórica do proselitismo protestante exercido na ilha da Madeira pelo Dr. Robert Reid Kalley, medico escossez. Funchal, 1845.

Tate, J. Roddam.  Madeira, or the spirit of Antichrist in a Series of Outrages Perpetrated in August Last (1846) on British Subjects and Portuguese Protestant Christians. London, 1847. Full book available at

Waterton, Charles. A contrast, being an account of the alleged persecutions inflicted on Dr. Kalley in Madeira, etc. 1846.

Wilson, Reverend W. Carus.  The Madeira Persecutions. London, 1856.



Allers, Wanda Warkins and Eileen Lynch Gochanour. “The Gathering of the Portuguese, Fourth Presbyterian Church, Springfield, Illinois." Springfield, Illinois: Eileen Gochanour, 1984.


———. “First Portuguese Presbyterian Church of Jacksonville, Illinois 1855–1860.” N.p., 1986. 

Angle, Paul McClelland.  “Here I Have Lived”: A History of Lincoln’s Springfield 1821–1865. Springfield, IL.: Abraham Lincoln Association, 1935. (pp. 141–143.)

Brettell, Caroline. “Little-Known Portuguese Immigrant Community in Illinois.”  Portuguese Studies Newsletter 17 (1987) :14–15.

Cameron, Hugh Eliot.  One Hundred and Twenty-Five Years of Service. The St. Ann’s Church of Scotland, Trinidad and Tobago, the West Indies, 1972.

———. “A Living Monument – A Historical Note.”  Church of Scotland Newsletter. Port-of-Spain: Greyfriars Church of Scotland, 1980.

Cardoso, Douglas Nassif.  Robert Reid Kalley: Médico, Missionário e Profeta. São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo: Douglas Nassif Cardoso, 2001. (Order from

Cardozo, Manoel da Silveira Soares.  The Portuguese in America: A Chronology and Fact Book. Dobbs Ferry, N.Y.: Oceana Publishers, 1976.

DeShara, Walter. “Group from Madeira Islands Settled in Jacksonville, Illinois One Hundred and Two Years Ago.”  Standard Times. 20 May 1951. New Bedford, MA.

———.  Historical Sketch: Northminster Presbyterian Church Centennial 1850–1950. Jacksonville, IL., 1950.

Eames, Charles M.  Historic Morgan and Classic Jacksounville. Jacksonville, IL., 1885. (pp. 127–8, 173, 214.)

Earle, Gilbert. “A By-Path of Presbyterian Missions in the West Indies.” The Trinidad Presbyterian, June 1923.

Every-Clayton, Joyce E. Winifred. "The Legacy of Robert Reid Kalley." International Bulletin of Mission Research Vol. 26 Issue 3 (2002),pp. 123-127.


Ferreira Fernandes. Opinião.  Grande Reportagem (Setembro 1995): 16.

____. "Os Madeirenses Errantes.”  Focus 42: 7 (Agosto 2000).

Ferreira, Jo-Anne S. “The Portuguese of Trinidad.” In The Book of Trinidad edited by Gérard A. Besson and Bridget Brereton. Port-of-Spain: Paria Publishing Company Ltd., 1991.

———.  The Portuguese of Trinidad and Tobago: Portrait of an Ethnic Minority. St. Augustine: Institute of Social and Economic Research, U.W.I., 1994.

———. “The Portuguese Language in Trinidad and Tobago: A Study of Language Shift and Language Death." Diss. (Ph.D.) University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, 1999.

Ferreira, Júlio Andrade.  História da Igreja Presbiteriana do Brasil. Vol. 1. and Vol. 2. São Paulo: Editora Cultura Cristã, 1959.

Filho, M. Porto. Congregacionalismo Brasileiro. Rio de Janeiro: Departamento da Educação Religiosa e Publicações, 1997.

Fiore, Jordan D. “Mr. Lincoln’s Portuguese Neighbors.”  Lincoln-Herald 73 (1972): 150–155.

Forsyth, William B. The Wolf from Scotland: The Story of Robert Reid Kalley, Pioneer Missionary. Evangelical Press, 2004.


Franklin, C.B.  After Many Years: A Memoir, being a Sketch in the Life and Labours of Reverend Alexander Kennedy, First Presbyterian Missionary to Trinidad, Founder of Greyfriars Church and its Pastor for Fourteen Years: January 1836–December 1849. Port-of-Spain: Franklin Electric Printery, 1910.

———. “Seventy-Fifth Anniversary of the Building of St. Ann’s Presbyterian Church 1854–1929 – A Historical Sketch.”  The Trinidad Presbyterian, June 1929.

———. “An Eighty-Seven Year Reminiscence: Flight of the Portuguese from Madeira in 1846.”  The Trinidad Presbyterian, September 1933.


———.  St. Ann’s Church of Scotland Centennial Sketch 1846–1946. Port-of-Spain: Guardian Commercial Printery, 1946.

Gochanour, Eileen Lynch. “Second Portuguese Presbyterian Church of Springfield, Illinois 1858–1878.” Springfield, IL.: n.p., 1985.

Guichard, François. “La Place de Madère dans l’Histoire du Protestantisme Lusophone (XIXe – XXE Siècles).”  Actas – III Colóquio Internacional de História da Madeira. Funchal: Centro de Estudos de História do Atlântico, 1993.

Helenthal, Ralph. “Church Is Portuguese Enclave” (Congregating Series).  Journal-Courier. Jacksonville, IL., 24 July 1992.

Moreira, Eduardo.  The Significance of Portugal; A Survey of the Religious Situation. London, 1933.

———.  Vidas convergentes – historia breve dos movimentos de reforma cristã em Portugal a partir do século XVIII. Lisbon: Junta Presbiteriana de Cooperação em Portugal, 1958.

Oliveira, Rui A. da Costa. "Dr. Robert Reid Kalley e o estabelecimento do Presbiterianismo em Portugal e no Brasil." In Revista Lusófona de Ciência das Religiões Vol. 5, No. 9/10 (2006), pp. 103-123. 

Poage, George Rawlings. “The Coming of the Portuguese.”  Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 18 (1): 101–35 (April 1925). (Also in Spanish-Americans and Portuguese-Americans, edited by Carlos E. Cortés. N.Y.: Arno Press, 1980.)

Purves, James.  An Island Story; the Scots in Madeira. Edinburgh, n.d.

Rocha, João Gomes da.  Lembranças do Passado. 3 Vols. Rio de Janeiro, 1946.

Rutherford, Brian C., ed.  Greyfriars of Trinidad 1837–1937: A Historical Sketch of the Congregation of Greyfriars Church of Scotland, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad, to mark the 150th Anniversary. Port-of-Spain: Greyfriars Church of Scotland, 1987.

Sandburg, Carl.  Abraham Lincoln: the Prairie Years. 2 Vols. N.Y.: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1926. (V. 2, p. 271.)

Singer, Cathy. “A Party for the Portuguese,” Illinois Times. 11–17 Nov 1977, pp. 8–11.

Testa, Michael Presbyter. “The Apostle of Madeira: Dr. Robert Reid Kalley” (Part 1) and "Portuguese Protestants in America” (Part 2), Journal of Presbyterian History 42 (1964): 175–97; 244–71.

———.  O Apóstolo da Madeira (Dr. Robert Reid Kalley). Translated by Manuel de Sousa Campos. Lisbon: Igreja Evangélica Presbiteriana de Portugal, 1974.

———  Injuriados e perseguidos: panorámica histórica da Fé Reformado em Portugal

Thornblad, Ardeen. “Coming of the Portuguese to Jacksonville.” Unpublished Paper. Northminster Presbyterian Church, Jacksonville, IL., 19(??).


Tucker, John Taylor.  Compêndio de História de Missões. Lisboa, 1984.

———.  Heróis da Cruz. Lisbon, 1957.

Vasconcellos, Emmanuel M. “Brief Narrative of the Original Portuguese Church.” Jacksonville, IL.: n.p, n.d. (Possibly 13 Nov 1927 in honour of the 45th anniversary of Springfield’s Portuguese Fourth Presbyterian Church.)

———. “A Brief History of the Portuguese Settlement at Jacksonville.” Jacksonville, IL.: n.p., n.d. (c. 1921)

Wallace, Joseph.  Past and Present of the City of Springfield and Sangamon County, Illinois. 2 Vols. Chicago: S.J. Clarke Publishing Company, 1904.


Wood, Donald.  Trinidad in Transition. London: Oxford University Press, for the Institute of Race Relations, 1968. 

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